Prevalence and risk factors for depression and anxiety among outpatient migraineurs in mainland China
The Journal of Headache and Pain, 04/06/2012
These findings can help clinicians to identify and treat anxiety and depression in order to improve migraine management. Methods A cross–sectional study was conducted consecutively at the headache clinic. Migraine was diagnosed according to International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition (ICHD–II). Demographic characteristics and clinical features were collected by headache questionnaire. Anxiety and depression symptoms about migraineurs were assessed using HADS. Several questionnaires were simultaneously used to evaluate patients with depressive disorder including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale–17 (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) and HADS. Pearson correlation analysis was applied to test the validity of HADS. 176 outpatients with migraine (81.8 % female) were included. Overall, 17.6 and 38.1 % participants had depression and anxiety, respectively. Possible risk factors for depression in migraineurs included headache intensity of first onset of migraine, migraine with presymptom, migraine with family history and migraine disability. The possible risk factors for anxiety included fixed attack time of headache in one day and poor sleeping, and age represented a protective factor for anxiety. Results
The correlation coefficient of HADS–A and HADS–D with HAMA and HAMD was 0.666 and 0.508, respectively (P < 0.01). This study demonstrates that depression and anxiety comorbidity in the mainland Chinese migraineurs are also common, and several risk factors were identified that may provide predictive value.