Surgical strategies for type II diabetes
Transplantation Reviews, 07/05/2012
Scalea JR et al. – The antidiabetic effect of bariatric operations is likely due to the improvement in the hormonal dysregulation associated with the development of diabetes. Many patients with diabetes, however, have irreparably damaged insulin production capabilities as well. In addition, it is well recognized that transplantation may be required for patients with severe loss of islet cell function. Surgery for type 2 diabetes, via bariatric procedures and transplantation, has become an important treatment modality for patients with advanced disease.
- Diabetes mellitus type II (or type 2 diabetes; DM2) has multiple definitions but is generally considered to be a disease marked by insulin resistance and loss of β cell function that develops in adulthood.
- Today, greater than 90% of patients with diabetes have DM2.
- When uncontrolled, DM2 may result in comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, neuropathy, immune system dysfunction, and renal failure.
- Classically, treatment of type 2 diabetes has included dietary and lifestyle changes.
- Even with behavior modification and oral hypoglycemics, many patients are unable to maintain glycemic control.
- With a growing understanding of the hormonal signals involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, there has been a shift in the therapeutic approach to this growing epidemic.
- Bariatric surgery has been shown to decrease the progression and potentially reverse the effects of diabetes in 80% to 90% of patients.
- In addition, bariatric operations are associated with sustained weight loss in contrast to nonsurgical options.