Initial findings: primary diabetes care responsibility among emerging adults with type 1 diabetes post high school and move out of parental home

Child: Care, Health, and Development, 04/19/2012

Hanna KM et al. – Diabetes care responsibility increased from high school to post high school among these emerging adults with diabetes. There is a complex relationship between self–efficacy, gender and responsibility related to living independently of parents for these youth.


  • During the last 6 months in high school (T1), 113 participants completed diabetes care responsibility (total, daily and non-daily), diabetes self-efficacy and worry about hypoglycaemia scales. Participants again completed the responsibility scales post high school graduation (T2).
  • The authors used a linear mixed-effects model with diabetes self-efficacy, worry about hypoglycaemia, time since graduation, living situation, gender and glycaemic control as independent variables; and diabetes care responsibility (total, daily and non-daily) as dependent variables.
  • Moderation involving diabetes self-efficacy, worry about hypoglycaemia, gender and glycaemic control was also tested.


  • Diabetes care responsibility increased over time for total (P < 0.001), daily (P= 0.002) and non-daily (P < 0.001), but the associations of self-efficacy and gender with diabetes care responsibility were moderated by living situation.
  • Self-efficacy was negatively related to total (P= 0.006), daily (P= 0.010) and non-daily (P= 0.030) responsibility for those not living independently while positively related only to total responsibility (P= 0.028) for those living independently.
  • Being female was positively related to total (P= 0.007) and non-daily (P= 0.001) responsibility for those living independently.

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