Re-examining a measure of diabetes-related burden in parents of young people with Type 1 diabetes: the Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey Parent Revised version (PAID-PR)

Diabetic Medicine, 04/05/2012

Markowitz JT et al. – The PAID–PR demonstrated excellent internal consistency, good test–retest reliability, and associations with diabetes–specific family conflict and quality of life. This brief measure may have both clinical and research utility in the management of young people with Type 1 diabetes.


  • A geographically diverse population of young people (N = 376) with Type 1 diabetes and their parents included participants in the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation continuous glucose monitoring study and patients from the Joslin Diabetes Center.
  • Participants provided data on demographics, diabetes management, diabetes-specific family conflict, and quality of life at baseline and after 6 months of follow-up.


  • Young people were 12.9 ± 2.7 years old with diabetes duration of 6.3 ± 3.5 years.
  • Mean HbA1C was 8.0 ± 1.2%(64 mmol/mol), 58% received insulin pump therapy, and young people monitored blood glucose 5.2 ± 2.3 times/day.
  • Factor analysis yielded two factors, `Immediate Burden' and `Theoretical Burden'.
  • The Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey - Parent Revised version (PAID-PR) demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.87; factor 1 α = 0.78; factor 2 α = 0.83).
  • Greater parental burden was associated with more frequent blood glucose monitoring, higher HbA1C levels, greater diabetes-specific family conflict, and lower quality of life.
  • Test-retest analysis was acceptable (r = 0.62).

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