Effects of Dapagliflozin, a Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor, on Hemoglobin A1c, Body Weight, and Hypoglycemia Risk in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled on Pioglitazone Monotherapy

Diabetes Care, 03/30/2012

Rosenstock J et al. – In patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on pioglitazone, the addition of dapagliflozin further reduced HbA1c levels and mitigated the pioglitazone–related weight gain without increasing hypoglycemia risk.

Methods

  • Treatment-naive patients or those receiving metformin, sulfonylurea, or thiazolidinedione entered a 10-week pioglitazone dose-optimization period with only pioglitazone.
  • They were then randomized, along with patients previously receiving pioglitazone ≥30 mg, to 48 weeks of double-blind dapagliflozin 5 (n = 141) or 10 mg (n = 140) or placebo (n = 139) every day plus open-label pioglitazone.
  • The primary objective compared hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) change from baseline with dapagliflozin plus pioglitazone versus placebo plus pioglitazone at week 24.
  • Primary analysis was based on ANCOVA model using last observation carried forward; all remaining analyses used repeated-measures analysis.

Results

  • At week 24, the mean reduction from baseline in HbA1c was -0.42% for placebo versus -0.82 and -0.97% for dapagliflozin 5 and 10 mg groups, respectively (P = 0.0007 and P < 0.0001 versus placebo).
  • Patients receiving pioglitazone alone had greater weight gain (3 kg) than those receiving dapagliflozin plus pioglitazone (0.7–1.4 kg) at week 48.
  • Through 48 weeks: hypoglycemia was rare; more events suggestive of genital infection were reported with dapagliflozin (8.6–9.2%) than placebo (2.9%); events suggestive of urinary tract infection showed no clear drug effect (5.0–8.5% for dapagliflozin and 7.9% for placebo); dapagliflozin plus pioglitazone groups had less edema (2.1–4.3%) compared with placebo plus pioglitazone (6.5%); and congestive heart failure and fractures were rare.

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