Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Causes Changes in the Concentrations of Adipocyte Fatty Acid-Binding Protein and Other Adipocytokines in Cord Blood

Diabetes Care, 08/09/2011

It is suggested that fetal tissues are the main source of cord arterial serum adipocyte fatty acid–binding protein (AFABP), and in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) fetuses AFABP values correlate with adiposity markers. A downregulation of adiponectin and upregulation of retinol–binding protein 4 (RBP4) in GDM mothers and their fetuses may be related to their insulin–resistant condition, whereas changes in AFABP do not seem to be related.

Methods

  • In 86 control and 98 GDM pregnant women, venous blood was collected before vaginal delivery and arterial blood from cord immediately after delivery.
  • Serum insulin and adipocytokines were measured by enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results

  • GDM women had higher prepregnancy BMI, and data were adjusted for it.
  • Maternal serum insulin, insulin–to–glucose ratio, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), AFABP, and retinol–binding protein 4 (RBP4) were higher and adiponectin was lower in GDM than in control subjects, whereas serum glucose, insulin, insulin–to–glucose ratio, HOMA, nonesterified fatty acids, and RBP4 were higher and glycerol, AFABP, and adiponectin were lower in cord blood serum of GDM than of control subjects.
  • AFABP and adiponectin in cord serum of control subjects were higher than in maternal serum; in GDMs no difference was found for AFABP in cord versus maternal serum, although adiponectin remained higher in cord.
  • Values of leptin in both groups were lower in cord than in maternal serum, and those of RBP4 were lower in only GDMs.

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