Veiraiah A et al.– Flumazenil is used infrequently in the management of Benzodiazepine (BZD) overdose (OD) in the UK. It was effective and associated with a low incidence of seizure. These results compare favourably with the results of published randomised controlled trials and cohort studies, although previous studies have not reported the use of flumazenil in such a high–risk population. This study should inform the continuing review of national guidance on flumazenil therapy.Methods
- A 2–year retrospective cohort study was performed of all enquiries to the UK National Poisons Information Service involving BZD OD.
- Flumazenil was administered to 80 patients in 4504 BZD–related enquiries, 68 of whom did not have ventilatory failure or had recognised contraindications to flumazenil.
- Factors associated with flumazenil use were increased age, severe poisoning and ventilatory failure.
- Co–ingestion of tricyclic antidepressants and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease did not influence flumazenil administration.
- Seizure frequency in patients not treated with flumazenil was 0.3%.
- The frequency of prior seizure in flumazenil–treated patients was 30 times higher (8.8%).
- Seven patients who had seizures prior to flumazenil therapy had no recurrence of their seizures.
- Ventilation or consciousness improved in 70% of flumazenil–treated patients.
- Flumazenil administration was followed by one instance each of agitation and brief seizure.