Conway V et al. – Sphingolipids (SL) are important components of the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) found in buttermilk. While studies in animal models suggest that dietary SL may have cholesterol–lowering properties, data in human are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of buttermilk consumption on plasma lipids and surrogate markers of cholesterol (C) homeostasis in humans. Buttermilk consumption may be associated with reduced cholesterol concentrations in men and women, primarily through inhibition of intestinal absorption of cholesterol.