Left Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy in the Presence of a Duplicated Inferior Vena Cava with Complicated Anomalous Tributaries by a Transmesocolic Approach
Wang L et al. – Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy should be executed under the most fundamental principle of early ligature of the renal artery to prevent diffusion of cancerous cells. This is extremely true in the treatment of large renal tumors touching the main renal vasculature. Obviously, the concomitance of a duplicated inferior vena cava with associated aberrant tributaries will significantly increase the surgical difficulty and the procedural risk of vascular injury.