Lower Serum Paraoxonase-1 Activity Is Related to Linoleic and Docosahexanoic Fatty Acids in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Archives of Medical Research, 04/23/2012

Decreased serum paraoxonase–1(PON–1) activity may, in part, be influenced by higher levels of linoleic acid (LA) and lower levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Prospective, randomized studies are necessary to confirm these preliminary findings.


  • Twenty patients with T2DM and 16 healthy controls were included in this cross–sectional study.
  • Serum PON–1 activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH–Px) activity as well as plasma glucose, HbA1c, lipids, high–sensitivity C–reactive protein (hs–CRP) and insulin resistance, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA–IR) were measured.
  • The preparation of FA methyl esters and their gas chromatography (GC) analysis were also performed.


  • HbA1c, plasma insulin, HOMA–IR and triglycerides were higher in patients with T2DM, whereas HDL–C was lower in those subjects.
  • Levels of pro–oxidative enzyme malondialdehyde (MDA) and hs–CRP were significantly higher, and anti–oxidative enzymes SOD and PON–1 activity were decreased in T2DM patients.
  • N–6 PUFAs were higher in T2DM patients, particularly linoleic acid (LA, 18:2 n–6) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n–6), whereas n–3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n–3) was lower in T2DM patients.
  • Using regression analysis, we have shown that only LA and DHA independently predicted PON–1 activity of all participants, particularly in patients with T2DM.

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