HIV-1 Proteins Preferentially Activate Anti-Inflammatory M2-Type Macrophages
The Journal of Immunology,

Takashi C et al. – Nef reduced the expression of CD163 and phagocytosis, the characteristic markers of M2–Mφ, indicating that Nef drives an M2–like to M1–like phenotypic shift. Because the differentiation of most tissue Mφ depends on M–CSF and its receptor, which is the essential axis for the anti–inflammatory M2–Mφ phenotype, the current study reveals an efficient mechanism by which HIV–1 proteins, such as Nef, induce the proinflammatory Mφ.

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