Environmental pollutants and allergic rhinitis Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery, 05/17/2012
Higgins TS et al. – Environmental factors have been noted to induce sinonasal mucosal irritation and often contribute to the multifactorial cause of chronic rhinitis and allergic rhinitis. Cigarette smoke is a common irritant that impacts the innate immune function of the sinonasal epithelial cells, and creates local irritation and cytotoxic effects. Both active smoking and exposure to second–hand smoke increase the risk of chronic rhinitis. Many other environmental pollutants are associated with chronic rhinitis, including ozone, particulate matter, and occupational irritants. The management of chronic rhinitis associated with environmental exposures is similar to the management of other types of chronic rhinitis. Although often not feasible, avoidance is probably the most effective course.