Duodenal lipid-induced symptom generation in gastroesophageal reflux disease: role of apolipoprotein A-IV and cholecystokinin

Neurogastroenterology & Motility,

The results suggest excessive duodenal lipid–induced release of apolipoprotein A–IV (apoA–IV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastro–esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The authors postulate that the resulting heightened activation of duodenal vagal afferents may underlie central sensitization, thereby increasing the perception of reflux events.

Methods

  • Ten GERD patients and 10 healthy volunteers (HV) underwent duodenal perfusion with Intralipid 20%, 2 kcal min-1, for 60 min.
  • Symptoms were scored, blood samples collected every 15 min during lipid perfusion and 15 min after discontinuation when duodenal biopsies were taken.
  • Plasma and mucosal concentrations of apoA-IV and CCK and transcript levels of 21 genes implicated in lipid absorption, differentially expressed under fasting conditions, were quantified.

Results

  • Heartburn (P = 0.003), abdominal discomfort (P = 0.037) and nausea (P = 0.008) only increased significantly during lipid infusion in GERD patients.
  • Following lipid infusion mean mucosal apoA-IV concentration was lower in GERD patients compared with HV (P = 0.023), whereas plasma concentration tended to be elevated (P = 0.068).
  • Mean mucosal CCK concentration was also lower in GERD patients (P = 0.009).
  • Two genes, HIBADH and JTB, were upregulated in GERD patients (P = 0.008 and P = 0.038, respectively).

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